The Sisters of Mercy

Commission to inquire into child abuse.

The Sisters of Mercy

1.93 The Sisters of Mercy played a significant role in the industrial school system, as they had been responsible for the management of 26 industrial schools. This is discussed fully in the General Chapter on the Sisters of Mercy. They were also involved in numerous primary and post-primary schools.

1.94 The Sisters of Mercy issued an apology in 1996, following the broadcast of the ‘Dear Daughter’ programme in 1995, which characterised a Sisters of Mercy Industrial School, Goldenbridge, as having been abusive. The apology was as follows:

In the light of recent revelations regarding the mistreatment of children in our institutions we the Mercy Sisters wish to take this opportunity to sincerely and unreservedly express our deep regret to those men and women who at any time or place in our care were hurt or harshly treated. The fact that most complaints relate to many years ago is not offered as an excuse. As a congregation we fully acknowledge our failures and ask for forgiveness.

Aware of the painful and lasting effect of such experiences we would like to hear from those who have suffered and we are putting in place an independent and confidential help line. This help line will be staffed by competent and professional counsellors who will listen sympathetically and who will be in the position to offer further help if required. In this way we would hope to redress the pain insofar as that is possible so that those who have suffered might experience some peace, healing and dignity.

Life in Ireland in the 40s and 50s was in general harsh for many people. This was reflected in orphanages, which were under funded, under staffed and under resourced. It was in this climate that many Sisters gave years of generous service to the education and care of children. However, we made mistakes and irrespective of the passage of time as a congregation we now openly acknowledge our failures and ask for forgiveness.

Regretfully we cannot change the past. As we continue our work of caring and education today we will constantly review and monitor our procedures, our personnel and our facilities. Working in close cooperation with other voluntary and statutory agencies we are committed to doing all in our power to ensure that people in our care have a protective and supportive environment.

We were founded to alleviate pain, want and misery. We have tried to do this through our work in health care, education, child care, social and pastoral work. Despite our evident failures which we deeply regret we are committed to continuing that work in partnership with many others in the years ahead.

1.95 Sr Breege O’Neill, then Congregational Leader of the….

6. Sisters of Mercy – Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse

Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse | Volume I – Chapter 1

Goldenbridge – Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse

Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse | Executive Summary

Sisters of Mercy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

St. Vincent’s Industrial School, Goldenbridge – Wikipedia, the free 

(May 2009) – Extract re Apologies by Sisters of Mercy in 1996 – False 

Abuse scandal in the Sisters of Mercy – Wikipedia, the free ..

commission to inquire into child abuse

Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse – Wikipedia, the free

commission to inquire into child abuse

Report – Commission to Inquire into Child Abus

commission to inquire into child abuse

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive compulsive disorder should not be confused with the following:

Obsessivecompulsive personality disorder – Wikipedia, the free 

ObsessiveCompulsive Personality Disorder – PsychCentral

Obsessivecompulsive personality disorder: MedlinePlus Medical 

ObsessiveCompulsive Personality Disorder – Internet Mental Health

ObsessiveCompulsive Personality Disorder | BehaveNet

.

The RIGHT Stuff – Obsessive Compulsive Personality  – OCD Online

OCPD Fact Sheet – Obsessive Compulsive Foundation

More videos for obsessive compulsive personality disorder »

ObsessiveCompulsive Personality Disorder – HealthyPlanning

Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder – BrainPhysics

Schweiz: Bernese Oberland

I’ve been invited to Switzerland on holiday by an old friend I’ve known since I lived in England. Elsa is from Schwyz, but now resides in Einsiedeln. Looking at this very scenic video of Bernese Oberland takes me back to the past when I too lapped up similar beauty of Kanton Schwyz and Luzern. It makes me just want to hire a car and go off there and take in the Bernese Oberland. I was many times on boat trips on der Schifffahrtsgesellschaft des Vierwaldstättersees: Startseite

I remember when I was sixteen and living in Rotkreuz, and each day going off to a neighbouring farm to collect the milk. It was so thick. The top of it was scraped off and allowed to go sour, and then used for the schöne apfelstrudeln.

Joan and Mimi Baez ‘The Swallow song’

                                     The Swallow Song (Richard Farina, 1964)

Come wander quietly and listen to the wind
Come here and listen to the sky
Come walking high above the rolling of the sea
And watch the swallows as they fly

There is no sorrow like the murmur of their wings
There is no choir like their song
There is no power like the freedom of their flight
While the swallows roam alone

Do you hear the calling of a hundred thousand voice
Hear the trembling in the stone
Do you hear the angry bells ringing in the night
Do you hear the swallows when they’ve flown?

And will the breezes blow the petals from your hand
And will some loving ease your pain
And will the silence strike confusion from your soul
And will the swallows come again?

H/t Scout4Me1 

~The Swallow Song ~ written by Richard Farina & Sung by Joan and Mimi Baez.

H/t 2t5i5g Photo of Mimi Baez [R.I.P.] belonging to Joan Baez at twitpic

Joan says:

“At the time of Richard Farina`s untimely death in April 1966 (at age 29) he was producing what could have been 25-year old Joan`s first electric folk-rock album, which she ultimately shelved. Only three song from those sessions have ever surfaced over the years, in various collections: “Swallow Song” was a remake of a tume from Richard & Mimi`s second LP, “Reflections in a Crystal Wind”. Three decades later, it sounded better than ever here, with Mimi`s magnificent guitar playing on display. “Mimi was a superlative guitar player, aiming for, achieving , and perfecting runnings, styles and gyrations which to this day leave me in awe. Siblings harmony, born of invisible bonds, love and genius, is like no other.”

— From Joan Baez – “Ring them Bells.”

I’ve been a life-long music fan of Joan Baez. So what a double treat it is to hear a duplicate of the exceptional talent, in the guise of Joan’s sister, Mimi R.I.P..

I just discovered after I had posted The Swallow Song that their mother passed away on the 20th April 2013. She was indeed blessed with longevity. She had just reached the century mark. So amazing. I would therefore like to dedicate this song in her honour. So Apt. Emmylou Harris, Joan and Scottish mama Bridge or Big Joan are all looking splendidly radiant in the photo.
Related:
Joan Baez: interview via @Telegraph http://soa.li/Czzw3db 

The statue of the Virgin at Granard – by Paula Meehan

Paula Meehan was born in Dublin in 1955. Her poetry collections include Return and No Blame (1984); Reading the Sky (1986); The Man Who Was Marked by Winter (1991), which was shortlisted for the Irish Times/Aer Lingus Irish Literature Prize for Poetry; Pillow Talk (1994), which was shortlisted for the Irish Times Literature Prize for Poetry; Mysteries of the Home: A Selection of Poems (1996); and Dharmakaya (2000). She has written plays for children and adults. New Island Books have published Mrs. Sweeney (1999) and Cell (2000). In recent years she was awarded the Marten Toonder Prize by the Arts Council and the Butler Award for Poetry by the Irish American Cultural Institute. She is a member of Aosdána, and lives in Dublin.

“The Statue of the Virgin at Granard”

It can be bitter here at times like this,
November wind sweeping across the border.
Its seeds of ice would cut you to the quick.
The whole town tucked up safe and dreaming,
even wild things gone to earth, and I
stuck up here in this grotto, without as much as
star or planet to ease my vigil.The howling won’t let up. Trees
cavort in agony as if they would be free
and take off – ghost voyagers
on the wind that carries intimations
of garrison towns, walled cities, ghetto lanes
where men hunt each other and invoke
the various names of God as blessing
on their death tactics, their night manoeuvres.
Closer to home the wind sails
over dying lakes. I hear fish drowning.
I taste the stagnant water mingled
with turf smoke from outlying farms.They call me Mary – Blessed, Holy, Virgin.
They fit me to a myth of a man crucified:
the scourging and the falling, and the falling again,
the thorny crown, the hammer blow of iron
into wrist and ankle, the sacred bleeding heart.They name me Mother of all this grief
Though mated to no mortal man.
They kneel before me and their prayers
fly up like sparks from a bonfire
that blaze a moment, then wink out.

It can be lovely here at times. Springtime,
early summer. Girls in Communion frocks
pale rivals to the riot in the hedgerows
of cow parsley and haw blossom, the perfume
from every rushy acre that’s left for hay
when the light swings longer with the sun’s push north.

Or the grace of a midsummer wedding
when the earth herself calls out for coupling
and I would break loose of my stony robes,
pure blue, pure white, as if they had robbed
a child’s sky for their colour. My being
cries out to be incarnate, incarnate,
maculate and tousled in a honeyed bed.

Even an autumn burial can work its own pageantry.
The hedges heavy with the burden of fruiting
crab, sloe, berry, hip; clouds scud east,
pear scented, windfalls secret in long
orchard grasses, and some old soul is lowered
to his kin. Death is just another harvest
scripted to the season’s play.

But on this All Soul’s Night there is
no respite from the keening of the wind.
I would not be amazed if every corpse came risen
From the graveyard to join in exaltation with the gale,
A cacophony of bone imploring sky for judgement
And release from being the conscience of the town.

On a night like this I remember the child
who came with fifteen summers to her name,
and she lay down alone at my feet
without midwife or doctor or friend to hold her hand
and she pushed her secret out into the night,
far from the town tucked up in little scandals,
bargains struck, words broken, prayers, promises,
and though she cried out to me in extremis
I did not move,
I didn’t lift a finger to help her,
I didn’t intercede with heaven,
nor whisper the charmed word in God’s ear.

On a night like this, I number the days to the solstice
and the turn back to the
light.

O sun,
center of our foolish dance,
burning heart of stone,
molten mother of us all,
hear me and have pity. 

H/t @lacanlune Thanks for Paula Meehan poem on Granard tragedy. Scroll down Shunning article at http://www.butterfliesandwheels.org to see link on Anne Lovett’s tragic story.

Alice Miller: Spanking a child is counterproductive and dangerous

By Alice Miller [1923-2010] (visit http://www.alice-miller.com)

Why spankings, slaps, and even apparently harmless blows like pats on the hand are dangerous for a baby? 1. They teach it violence.
2. They destroy the absolute certainty of being loved that the baby needs.
3. They cause anxiety: the expectancy of the next attack.
4. They convey a lie: they pretend to be educational, but parents actually use them to vent their anger; when they strike, it’s because, as children, they were struck themselves.
5. They provoke anger and a desire for revenge, which remain repressed, only to be expressed much later.
6. They program the child to accept illogical arguments (I’m hurting you for your own good) that stay stored up in their body.
7. They destroy sensitivity and compassion for others and for oneself, and hence limit the capacity to gain insight.

What long-term lessons does the baby retain from spankings and other blows?

The baby learns: 1. That a child does not deserve respect.
2. That good can be learned through punishment (which is actually wrong, punishment merely teaches the children to want to punish in their own turn).
3. That suffering mustn’t be felt, it must be ignored (which is dangerous for the immune system).
4. That violence is a manifestation of love (fostering perversion).
5. That denial of feeling is healthy (but the body pays the prize of this error, often much later).

How is repressed anger very often vented?

In childhood and adolescence: 1. By making fun of the weak.
2. By hitting classmates.
3. By annoying the teachers.
4. By watching TV and playing video games to experience forbidden and stored up feelings of rage and anger, and by identifying with violent heroes. (Children who have never been beaten are less interested in cruel films, and, as adults, will not produce horror shows).

In adulthood: 1. By perpetuating spanking, as an apparently educational and effective means, often heartily recommended to others, whereas in actual fact, one’s own suffering is being avenged on the next generation.
2. By refusing to understand the connections between previously experienced violence and the violence actively repeated today. The ignorance of society is thereby perpetuated.
3. By entering professions that demand violence.
4. By being gullible to politicians who designate scapegoats for the violence that has been stored up and which can finally be vented with impunity: “impure” races, ethnic “cleansing”, ostracized social minorities, other religious communities etc.
5. Because of obedience to violence as a child, by readiness to obey any authority which recalls the authority of the parents, as the Germans obeyed Hitler, the Russians Stalin, the Serbs Milosevic.

Conversely, some become aware of the repression and universal denial of childhood pain, realizing how violence is transmitted from parents to children, and stop hitting children regardless of age. This can be done (many have succeeded) as soon as one has understood that the causes of the “educational” violence are hidden in the repressed history of the parents.

Pictures from http://www.freefoto.com

H/t projectEnlightenment

Hannah Arendt interview

Powerful interview in German with English subtitles.

 Hannah Arendt (1906–1975) was one of the most influential political philosophers of the twentieth century.

Hannah Arendt (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Hannah Arendt made it clear in the interview that she was not a philosopher, despite having studied philosophy. She was in fact a political theorist.
Hannah Arendt considered calling her magnum opus Amor Mundi: Love of the World. Instead, she settled upon The Human Condition. What is most difficult, Arendt writes, is to love the world as it is, with all the evil and suffering in it. And yet she came to do just that. Loving the world means neither uncritical acceptance nor contemptuous rejection. Above all it means the unwavering facing up to and comprehension of that which is.

What I propose, therefore, is very simple: it is nothing more than to think what we are doing.—Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition.

No theme, no word, no action better captures the passion of Hannah Arendt than her insistence that we think what we are doing. The need to think was, as Alfred Kazin has written, an incessant refrain in Arendt’s conversations with friends. It was also the force that breathes life into every one of her books.

The Origins of Totalitarianism, Arendt’s first published book, locates the roots of totalitarian government in loneliness, rootlessness, and thoughtlessness. What is needed, she writes, is not to understand totalitarianism, but to comprehend it, by which she means “the unpremeditated, attentive facing up to, and resisting of reality—whatever it may be.”  Only once we admit that in our time “everything is possible,” can we confront ourselves and see ourselves honestly for whom we are. And only then can we resist the dangerous reality that is our world.

In 1961, Arendt published a series of essays Between Past and Future: Six Exercises in Political Thought. The theme of these essays is, again, the activity of thinking, the activity that happens in the “gap between past and future.”

“Only insofar as [man] thinks… does man in the full actuality of his concrete being live in this gap of time between past and future.”

The trouble, Arendt writes, is that few people at any time in history have been equipped to and practiced in the art of thinking. For most of history, the widespread absence of thought was not a problem since the “gap was bridged over by what, since the Romans, we have called tradition.” Because tradition, religion, and authority told us how to behave and defined our moral notions of right and wrong, the mass of humanity did not need to think for themselves; and the fact that most people at most times do not think was not a tragedy.

We are the first people in the history of the world who live without tradition and thus without well-worn guideposts that bridge the chasm separating man from his living together with others in a shared world. If tradition is that which hands down a common world into which we are born and educated, the loss of tradition means that we live increasingly without the bannisters that orient us in our living with one another.

Shorn of tradition and deprived of its authority that covers over the gap, the modern age faces the distinctive challenge that “the activity of thought”—once “restricted as an experience to those few who made thinking their primary business”—must now now become “a tangible reality and perplexity for all.” In other words,

“[Thinking] has become a fact of political relevance.”

Arendt pursued the political relevance of thinking everywhere in her work, but nowhere more doggedly than in her account of Adolf Eichmann. In her engagement with what she saw as Eichmann’s thoughtlessness—his banality, his reliance on clichés, and his bureaucratic mentality—she understood that it was his inability to think that enabled his inhuman crimes. It was thus her experience of Eichmann that led Arendt to ask:

“Could the activity of thinking as such be among the conditions that make men abstain from evil-doing or even actually ‘condition’ them against it.”

What Arendt demands is that we think; we must, in other words, reconcile ourselves to the fact that in our world we can no longer rely on tradition, morality, or religion to chart our course or guide our actions. Adrift in a world in which anything and everything is possible, thinking is the only activity standing between ourselves and the most heinous of evils. 

Mary Carpenter, reformatory schools and education

Red Lodge, plaque for Mary Carpenter from geograph.org.uk. Sourced from Wikimedia Commons.

Mary Carpenter, reformatory schools and education.

Mary Carpenter’s path-breaking work on the experiences of children in trouble – and the education that should be offered them was a landmark in nineteenth century educational and social analysis. Her realism, tolerance, and good humour struck a particularly liberal note. We explore the main principles and methods of her educational approach.

contents: introduction · educational principles and methods ·  conclusion · further reading and references · how to cite this article

Mary Carpenter (1807-77) was born in Exeter, the daughter of a Unitarian minister (her father was Minister of a Chapel in Lewins Mead, Bristol). She was taught in her father’s school and went on to work as a governess on the Isle of Wight in 1827. Two years later Mary opened a small school for girls with her mother in Bristol. It is said that her direct interest in the problems and experiences of children living in poverty, came about from a time when she was out with Dr Joseph Tuckerman (the Boston philanthropist) and they saw a small ragged boy running down the street. He said that ‘the boy should be followed to his home and seen after’ (quoted in Young and Ashton 1956: 166). This was in 1833.

Mary Carpenter, sourced from Wikimedia Commons.Carpenter began working for poor children. In 1835 she founded a Working and Visiting Society (and was its secretary for 20 years) – and after her father’s death in 1840 she also took up some of his charitable work. In 1846 Mary Carpenter opened a ragged school in Bristol slum. ‘In this she was faced with the riotous behaviour of untamed and poverty-stricken children, yet she succeeded in holding their interest by her ability and enthusiasm’(op. cit.). Mary Carpenter began to focus on the needs of the more ‘difficult’ youngsters – and they were often also offenders. She was appalled by the way in which these young people learnt criminal behaviour at an early age.

She began to study the situation in other countries – and some of the key reform programmes that had been developed. In 1851 Mary Carpenter published her essay on reform schools: Reformatory Schools for the Children of the Perishing and Dangerous Classes and for Juvenile Offenders and called a conference in Birmingham to discuss the institutional care of young offenders. There was a lot of interest in her proposals and in 1852 she opened her own reformatory for boys and girls at Kingswood to experiment with and publicize her ideas. Helped financially by a group of well-wishers, Mary Carpenter took over the premises of a school originally founded by John Wesley over a century before. She experienced problems with the mixed environment and so two years later started a reform school for girls a couple of miles away in Red Lodge on Park Row(an Elizabethan building that had fallen into disrepair). She was also active on the writing front, publishing in 1853,Juvenile Delinquents, their Condition and Treatment.

Her work was influential – in part affecting the writing of Youthful Offenders Act 1854 (which recognised such schools). Later her lobbying helped lead to the passing of the Industrial Schools Acts 1857, 1861, and 1866. Mary Carpenter also opened a workmen’s hall and was later to publish a book on the convict system (1864).

In addition to this field of work, Mary Carpenter was well known for her interest in Indian affairs, and in the space of ten years (between 1866 and 1876) made four visits there. She was especially concerned with the education of women and penal policy. In 1870 she founded the National India Association (1870) and pressured British governments for reform. She was an advocate of higher education for women and became convinced of the need for women to be involved in public life.

Mary Carpenter remained single, but adopted a daughter in 1858. She died in 1877.

Educational principles and methods

Young and Ashton (1956: 169-172) have provided a very helpful summary of the methods and principles Mary Carpenter advocated. They argued that six main elements characterized her approach:

Treatment should be founded on the love of the child. In this way the trust, affection and sense of security the ‘normal’ child can expect in their own family can be awakened. Following the example of the Rauhe Haus, Hamburg Mary Carpenter believed that the reformatory should be as close in size as was possible to a family so that individual needs could be dealt with and an appropriate environment created. This also entailed employing a skilled and capable staff. (ibid.: 169)

Change required the cooperation of the child. Mary Carpenter believed that it was difficult to do any meaningful work unless children must be ready and willing to change and believed that progress was possible. Without active participation ‘change would not be forthcoming’ – and this was true of industrial training just as much as moral development (ibid.: 169-170).

Work was to be a means to an end, not an end in itself. There should be no forced work. Mary Carpenter believed that it had no educative quality. While she believed that the basis of the curriculum should be work – especially of a kind that excites interest, calls forth all a child’s powers, and that helps them to see they are useful – it should not be forced upon them. As Young and Ashton put it, ‘It would be better for a child to be idle, even refused access to work, so that when he was tired of his idleness work could be made available as a favour’ (ibid.: 170).

Recreation was as important as work. Children need sport, Mary Carpenter believed, and the chance to participate in it. In this respect she swam strongly against the dominant thinking of her day. She recognized that teachers in schools had more opportunity to discover ‘the true nature of the boy in his periods of recreation than at any other time.(ibid.: 170).

Corporal punishment was reduced to a minimum. Carpenter thought that both constant severity and over-indulgence were counter-productive. If children earnt money through work and had their own possessions, for example, they were more likely to respect property – and to realize ‘that what belonged to others was as prized as what they themselves possessed’ (ibid.: 170-1).

The approach should be educational – and should be founded on Christianity. Christian and moral teachinghad to run in parallel with learning a trade. ‘The delinquent would thus be equipped in every way to occupy his station in life on release’ (ibid.: 171).

Unlike a number of other practitioners in this area, Mary Carpenter had no fixed idea of how long the reform process would take. ‘Each case should be dealt with on its merits, release dependent on the progress made, and decided by the school managers under a government inspection’ (ibid.: 171).

Conclusion

Mary Carpenter made a profound contribution to the development of more humane and enlightened treatment for young offenders. The liberality of her educational methods and principles stand in stark contrast to the dominant ideology and practices of her time. The Kingswood Reformatory was rebuilt in 1892 and continued operating until 1984. Red Lodge continued working until 1918. It is now a museum with a room dedicated to Mary Carpenter.

Further reading and references

Carpenter, J. E. (1879, 2d ed. 1881, repr. 1973) Life and Work of Mary Carpenter, London: Macmillan

Carpenter, M. (1851) Reformatory Schools for the Children of the Perishing and Dangerous Classes, and for Juvenile Offenders, London : C. Gilpin.

Carpenter, M. (1853) Juvenile Delinquents, their Condition and Treatment, London: W. & F.G. Cash.

Carpenter, M. (1864) Our Convicts, London : Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green.

Manton, J. (1976) Mary Carpenter and the Children of the Streets, London : Heinemann Educational.

Selleck, R. J. W. (1985) ‘Mary Carpenter : a confident and contradictory reformer’,History of Education. Vol. 14, no. 2 pp. 101-115.

Young, A. F. and Ashton, E. T. (1956) British Social Work in the Nineteenth Century, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Links

Red Lodge Museum, Bristol

Kingswood Foundation: Community and arts project based in the buildings of the 1852 school.

To cite this article: Smith, M. K. (2002) ‘Mary Carpenter, reformatory schools and education’, the encyclopedia of informal education, Last update: December 06, 2012. [http://infed.org/mobi/mary-carpenter-reformatory-schools-and-education/. Retrieved: insert date]

© Mark K. Smith 2002

photo

Kingswood Reformatory School, South Gloucestershire

Opened in 1852, rebuilt and reopened 1892. It was intended for the reformation of boys convicted of criminal practices. Money for their upkeep originally came from voluntary contributions, except for 7 shillings a week for boys sent by the Government. Later it came from the Treasury and the County or Borough authorities. Boys were detained there for 3 years or more.

In 1852 this building and land were for sale. Standing as it did in these acres, it was exactly the type of School that Mary Carpenter (one of our great Bristol Reformers) needed for her Agricultural Reformatory school, her idea being that the young offenders should not go to prison but should be sent to a school where they would have to work and where the influence of those in charge would help them to become good citizens. Mary Carpenter was helped in this venture by Lady Byron and Mr. Scott Russell who made it possible for her to have the use of the premises and so one autumn evening, a cart laden with bedding, with a small boy perched on the top of it, could be seen slowly making its way through the grounds to the house. This small boy on the cart was the first inmate of the Reformatory School.

Mary Carpenter’s idea proved so effective that Reformatory Schools were started in various parts of the country and they revolutionised the prison system for dealing with young offenders.

She began to study the situation in other countries – and some of the key reform programmes that had been developed. In 1851 Mary Carpenter published her essay on reform schools: Reformatory Schools for the Children of the Perishing and Dangerous Classes and for Juvenile Offenders and called a conference in Birmingham to discuss the institutional care of young offenders. There was a lot of interest in her proposals and in 1852 she opened her own reformatory for boys at Kingswood to experiment with and publicize her ideas. Two years later she started a reform school for girls close by in Red Lodge (an Elizabethan building that had fallen into disrepair). She was also active on the writing front, publishing in 1853, Juvenile Delinquents, their Condition and Treatment.

Her work was influential – in part affecting the writing of Youthful Offenders Act 1854 (which recognized such schools). Later her lobbying helped lead to the passing of the Industrial Schools Acts 1857, 1861, and 1866. Mary Carpenter also opened a workmen’s hall and was later to publish a book on the convict system (1864}.

In addition to this field of work, Mary Carpenter was well known for her interest in Indian affairs, and in the space of ten years (between 1866 and 1876) made four visits there. She was especially concerned with the education of women and penal policy. In 1870 she founded the National India Association (1870) and pressured British governments for reform. She was an advocate of higher education for women and became convinced of the need for women to be involved in public life.

Mary Carpenter remained single, but adopted a daughter in 1858. She died in 1877.

A child, under 14 years of age, could be sent to an Industrial School for begging, wandering, consorting with thieves or prostitutes or because the parents deemed him/her uncontrollable. If a child was found gulity of a more serious offence or had been before the courts previously he/she was usually sent to a Reformatory School. Sometimes these institutions were used as both Industrial and Reformatory School, for example Feltham.

Both institutions gave basic education to the inmates and taught them a trade such as shoemaking, tailoring, wood chopping, carpentry and farming, for the boys and, cookery, laundry and house chores for the girls.”

Photo and information at Flickr. H/t: brizzle born and bred Paul Townsend

Related:

http://books.google.ie/books?id=smjRfTXcTV0C&pg=PA1&output=embed&#8221

Freedom of Angels – by Bernadette Fahy