When most people think of racism and other forms of bias, they picture one group having negative feelings toward another group. Although this dynamic certainly takes place, research since the 1970s has found that many group biases are more a function of favoritism toward one’s own group than negative feelings toward other groups. As Marilyn Brewer (1999, p. 438) put it in her summary of the evidence,
“Ultimately, many forms of discrimination and bias may develop not because outgroups are hated, but because positive emotions such as admiration, sympathy, and trust are reserved for the ingroup.”
The tendency of people to favor their own group, known as “ingroup bias,” has been found in cultures around the world (Aberson, Healy, & Romero, 2000; Brewer, 1979, 1999).”
Read more at: In-group Favoritism – UnderstandingPrejudice.org: The Psychology of …
In-group favoritism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The basic concept behind the establishment of the pecking order among, for example, chickens, is that it is necessary to determine who is the ‘top chicken,’ the ‘bottom chicken’ and where all the rest fit in between. The establishment of the dominance hierarchy is believed to reduce the incidence of intense conflicts that incur a greater expenditure of energy. The dominance level determines which individual gets preferential access to resources such as food and mates.
Pecking order – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A small group of people with shared interests or tastes, especially one that is exclusive of other people.